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Arnold J. Toynbee
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    (April 14, 1889-October 22, 1975)
    Born in London, United Kingdom
    English historian
    Best know for his monumental work 'A Study of History'
    Posited that history is a study of civilizations and not individual nation states and/or ethnic groups
    Attended Oxford University and Winchester College
    Despite his popularity as a writer, he is not considered an influential historian.
    He divorced his wife and mother of his three children to marry his secretary.
    He and his father Arnold Sr. (without the J.) are frequently confused with each other.
    He thought Indian civilization a model for the West.
    He once said the coming of Buddhism would be the most important event of the 20th century.
    It took almost thirty years, 1934 - 1961 for him to write 'A Study of History.'
    His theories didn't account for the incredible advances in communication, i.e., the internet in the late 20th century.
    He thought that the German tribes would have been better off had they never embraced Christianity.
    He rejected determinism, the idea that civilizations were doomed to fall.
    He served in British intelligence during both world wars.
    He made the study of history exciting.
    He taught at Oxford and the London School of Economics among others.
    He famously said 'Civilizations die from suicide not murder.'
    He was the rarest of all men, a famous historian.
    He recognized the importance of religion in history.
    He inspired the incredibly cool Ray Bradbury story, 'The Toynbee Convector' and presumably Toynbee tiles.

Credit: tom_jeffords

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