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Nicole Oresme
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Religious Figure
    (circa 1323-July 11, 1382)
    Born in Fluery-sur-Ome, France
    Catholic bishop, philosopher, and scientist of 14th century France
    'Called one of the most influential thinkers of 14th Century Europe'
    Wrote influential works on economics, philosophy, mathematics, physics, astrology, philosophy, and theology
    BA from the College of Navarre (where he later became president), MA and PhD from the University of Paris
    Bishop of Lisieux (1377-82)
    Some of his more than thirty extant full length works include 'Le Livvre du ciel du monde,' 'De proportionibus,' 'Ad pauca respicients' and 'De origine, natura, et mutationibus monetarum'
    He was French.
    He had a girl's first name.
    His exact birth date is unknown.
    He mathematically demonstrated that the Earth most likely revolved around the Sun and wasn't the center of the Universe (some two centuries before Copernicus) but continued to believe so anyway for theological reasons.
    He didn't believe in objective perception, thinking rather that what we think we perceive is an after the fact construct of memories and wrote that, 'If a creature would exist without a memory, it could never hear a sound' and overall his thoughts on psychology were concerned with epistemelogical concepts and highly theoretical and had little to nothing to do with the everyday person and his concerns.
    Much of his scientific work was not lost but simply ignored, sometimes for hundreds of years and his place in the history of science is almost totally ignored.
    He didn't understand gravity and therefore didn't believe that the movement of the planets could be predicted accurately.
    Although highly respected as a theologian and a preacher in his time, little of his spiritual writing has survived.
    He died relatively young, even for his time and his cause of death is unknown.
    King Charles V once sent him on a trip to borrow money from another royal family.
    He was from a poor family and could only attend college with the help of the equivalent of an academic scholarship.
    At the behest of King Charles V of France, whom he served as adviser and chaplain, he translated his own scientific works and those of Aristotle and other scientist into French.
    In his Livre de divinacious, he mathematically disproved the reliability of astrology.
    Some of his contributions to math and science included: offering the first proof of Merton's theory, discovering sound and light are transfers of energy that do not displace matter, developing the theory of probability, developing a geometric model to quantify and compare the intensities of qualities and speeds, discovering irrational fractions, and developing the language of ratios.
    He also developed rectangular co-ordinates/the idea of using latitude and longitude which led to developmental of analytical geometry, discovered the laws of motion centuries before Galileo and discovered the refraction of light.
    Referred to as, 'The greatest medieval economist,' he wrote the first ever full length work on monetary theory.
    He has a crater on the moon named after him.
    His initials spell 'No.' And since he was a Catholic priest with a Phd, you could call him 'Doctor No' or 'Father No.'

Credit: tom_jeffords

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