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Francois (N'Garta) Tombalbaye
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World Leader
    (June 15, 1918-April 3, 1975)
    Born in Chad
    Sara ethnicity
    Educated in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
    Established Parti Progressiste Tchadien, meaning Chadian Progressive Party (1947)
    Chadian representative in 1957 General Council for French Equatorial Africa
    Prime Minister of Chad (March 26, 1959-April 13, 1973)
    President of Chad (August 11, 1960-April 13, 1975)
    Launched a ‘Cultural Revolution’ aimed at wiping out European, particularly French, influences
    Changed his name from François to N’Garta as part of his Africanization program (1973)
    Renamed Fort-Lamy to its present name, N’Djamena (April 6, 1973)
    Assassinated by rebel soldiers during a coup
    Once Chad became independent, he led the country as an autocracy, stamping out signs of dissent.
    He banned political parties as part of his autocratic form of government (1962).
    His Africanization programs, which originated from his southern Chadian heritage, caused resentment among northern Chadians, who are predominantly Muslim (1965).
    During the later years of his presidency, his Africanization programs alienated his fellow southern Chadians who didn’t belong to his ethnicity.
    He forced non-Muslim southern Chadian men to undergo an initiation rite native to the Sara ethnicity known as the ‘yondo’ if they wanted to get promoted in the military and the civil service. If they refused, they were executed.
    As a result, he lost control over part of his country.
    He became hostile toward Christianity by kicking out missionaries.
    He became president and prime minister of Chad at the same time.
    He became paranoid during the second half of his presidency.
    By the end of World War II, he was one of a few Chadians to get a secondary education.
    He was enemies with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and provided Libyan rebels to operate in Chad.
    After making a deal with France, he gradually liberalized his country by releasing several hundred political prisoners during elections (1969).
    He preferred to be called ‘Citizen’ rather than ‘President’.
    He improved his relations with Libya while touring Arab countries (1972).

Credit: Big Lenny

    For 2020, as of last week, Out of 20 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2018, Out of 46 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2018, Out of 26 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2017, Out of 20 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2016, Out of 9 Votes: 44.44% Annoying
    In 2015, Out of 31 Votes: 48.39% Annoying
    In 2014, Out of 120 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2013, Out of 40 Votes: 50.0% Annoying
    In 2012, Out of 27 Votes: 74.07% Annoying
    In 2011, Out of 15 Votes: 100% Annoying
    In 2010, Out of 33 Votes: 60.61% Annoying
    In 2009, Out of 65 Votes: 64.62% Annoying
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