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Josef Breuer
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    (January 15, 1842-June 20, 1925)
    Born in Vienna, Austria
    Neurologist and pioneering psychologist
    Developed the 'talking cure' while treating 'Anna O.' (pseudonym for Bertha Pappenheim) for hysteria
    Mentor to Sigmund Freud
    With Freud wrote 'Studies on Hysteria' (1895)
    In 'Studies on Hysteria,' he and Freud presented 'Anna O.' as having been successfully cured, but in reality her treatment ended with Breuer sending her to a sanitarium.
    He ended his sessions with Pappenheim partly because of his wife's jealousy over the attention he paid to his patient.
    He also got Pappenheim addicted to morphine while treating her for neuralgia.
    In a private letter, Freud wrote about Pappenheim, 'He [Breuer] says she will never be well again, that she is completely shattered.' (1883)
    Instead, she began recovering when she involved herself in social and political causes.
    He determined the role of the vagus nerve in reflex respiration.
    He and Ernst Mach independently showed how the brain maintains the sense of balance based on the movement of fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear.
    Unlike Freud, he did not think all neuroses were based on sexual problems.
    He wrote, 'Freud is a man given to absolute and exclusive formulations: this is a psychical need which, in my opinion, leads to excessive generalization.'
    He was known for his sympathetic bedside manner.

Credit: C. Fishel

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